When J. M. W. Turner was a sickly child, he was sent to live with his uncle in rural England, and it was during this time, he began his artistic career.

Who Was J. M. W. Turner?

Turner's landscape paintings were brilliant and full of Romantic imagery. Today, he is recognized as a predecessor of Impressionism, as his art developed from realism to fluidity and lyricism.

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Years of Formative Experience

Years of Formative Experience

On April 23, 1775, Joseph Mallord William Turner was born in Covent Garden, London, England. Turner's father, a barber and wig manufacturer, supported his family through his wife's mental illness, compounded by Turner's younger sister's death in 1786.

Places of Residence

In 1785, Turner was relocated to Brentford to live with an uncle, but he returned to Covent Garden before the decade's end. However, he was always eager to return to his birthplace.

Artistic Career

Despite his lack of formal education, Turner was a skilled artist, and by the age of 13, he was selling sketches shown in his father's store. Turner was admitted to the Royal Academy of Arts in late 1789 and allowed to exhibit his work in the Royal Academy Exhibition the following year.

Career Growth

In the Arts, Success and Innovation

The Royal Society of Arts awarded the 17-year-old the "Great Silver Pallet" for landscape drawing in 1793.

The Powerful Impact

Turner swiftly earned a steady income by, among other things, selling ideas to engravers, colouring sketches, and providing private lessons. He was influenced by artists like Thomas Gainsborough, Henry Fuseli, Philippe Jacques de Loutherbourg, Michael Angelo Rooker, and Richard Wilson.

Gaining Impressions

Turner began travelling extensively around Europe, with his visits to Venice being particularly memorable. His early work reflected his expertise as a topographic draftsman and resulted in realistic landscape depictions, but he eventually established his style.

The Second Name

He was known as the " Painter of Light " for his use of bright colours to create settings of light images; he was known as the "Painter of Light." His watercolours, oil paintings, and engravings are regarded as the forerunners of Impressionism today.

Art during the Romanticism
Art during the Romanticism

When the Romantic era started in Europe at the end of the 1800s, it was a time for art, literature, music, and philosophy. Most of the time, the Romantic era was at its peak between 1800 and 1850 in most places. When people think about Romanticism, they think about how it emphasizes emotions and individuality, as well as how it celebrates all things past and present, with a strong preference for the medieval over the classical. Industrialization, the Age of Enlightenment’s social and political standards, and the scientific rationality of nature are all things that make up modernity. It was also a reaction to these things. This was long before the scottish association of writers.

finest in comparative literature
finest in comparative literature

It had a huge and complicated effect on politics, with romantic intellectuals having an effect on conservatism, liberalism, radicalism, and nationalism. The movement put a lot of emphasis on extreme emotions like fear, horror, and terror, as well as wonder, when it came to new aesthetic categories like the sublime and natural beauty. This was especially true when they came up against new aesthetic categories like the sublime and nature. It made not only folk art and historical traditions noble, but also spontaneity a good thing (as in the musical impromptu). Romanticism tried to avoid population growth, early urban development, and industrialism by bringing back medievalism and parts of art and narrative that were thought to be authentically medieval. This was in contrast to the Rationalism Classicism Enlightenment.

It was based on the German Sturm and Drang movement, which valued intuition and passion over the Enlightenment’s rationalism. The events and beliefs of the French Revolution were also important because many early Romantics were cultural revolutionaries and sympathizers of the French Revolution. Romanticism put a lot of value on the achievements of “heroic” individuals and artists, and said that their example would help society improve. It also said that the human imagination was a big factor in how artists could break away from traditional ideas about form. There was a lot of emphasis on historical and natural inevitability, or “Zeitgeist,” in the way it talked about its ideas. Realism was thought of as the opposite of Romanticism in the second half of the 19th century. When Romanticism died, it was because of a lot of things, like changes in the social and political world.

The value of the artist’s unrestrained expression of emotions can help us understand Romanticism. In a quote from the German painter Caspar David Friedrich, he said that the artist’s feelings are his guide. William Wordsworth believes that poetry should begin with “the spontaneous outpouring of great sentiments,” which the poet may then “recollect in tranquility,” resulting in a different but corresponding emotion that the poet can then use to create art.. To communicate these emotions, it was thought that the content of art should emerge from the artist’s mind, with as little interference as possible from “artificial” laws defining what should be included in a work. A good creative artist’s mind would instinctively follow a set of natural rules if left alone, according to Samuel Taylor Coleridge and other thinkers. Restriction was a factor, but it was also believed that using models from previous works would limit the creator’s creativity, necessitating something new. In Romanticism, the idea of a genius or artist who was able to create something new from nothing was important, and it was considered the worst sin to be derivative. “Romantic distinctiveness” is a term for this.

The Master's Odds

Turner joined the Royal Academy of Arts in 1807 as a professor of perspective, where he lectured until 1828. He became increasingly eccentric and reclusive, avoiding contact with virtually everyone but his father, and was incensed when Queen Victoria refused to knight him. Turner continued to hold shows but reluctantly sold his paintings, each of which sent him into deep despair. Despite his unusual behaviour, Turner continued to create notable works of art. Despite being best known for his oil paintings, he is recognized as one of the English watercolour landscape painting founders.

Acclaimed Creations

His most known works are Dido Building Carthage (1815), The Grand Canal, Venice (1835), Peace - Burial at Sea (1842), and Rain, Steam, and Speed (1844). Turner's works were shown for the final time in 1850. Throughout his career, he created thousands of pieces, with about 2,000 paintings sold to private collectors. In addition, he created over 19,000 drawings and sketches. And these works, together with more than 300 masterpieces, including unaccomplished oil painting, were left behind.